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2006-2-2 部份中国_ 复姓

CREATED BY STABX, AT 2006-2-1.

部份中国_ 复姓

---/------------------------------------------------------------

万俟 司马 上官 欧阳
夏侯 诸葛 闻人 东方 赫连 皇甫 尉迟 公羊
澹台 公冶 宗政 濮阳 淳于 单于 太叔 申屠
公孙 仲孙 轩辕 令狐 钟离 宇文 长孙 慕容
鲜于 闾丘 司徒 司空 亓官 司寇 仉督 子车
颛孙 端木 巫马 公西 漆雕 乐正 壤驷 公良
拓拔 夹谷 宰父 谷粱 晋楚 阎法 汝鄢 涂钦
段干 百里 东郭 南门 呼延 归海 羊舌 微生
岳帅 缑亢 况后 有琴 梁丘 左丘 东门 西门
商牟 佘佴 伯赏 南宫 墨哈 谯笪 年爱 阳佟
第五 言福

呼...
有几个姓氏真笑死我了...

Stabx
2006-2-1
[PR]
by shawl_qiu | 2006-02-02 12:00 | DIGEST

中国历史朝代歌


中国历史朝代歌

唐尧虞舜夏商周,春秋战国乱悠悠。

秦汉三国晋统一,南朝北朝是对头。

隋唐五代又十国,宋元明清帝王休。
[PR]
by shawl_qiu | 2005-10-15 19:09 | DIGEST

二十四节气歌


二十四节气歌

春雨惊春清谷天,夏满芒夏暑相连

秋处露秋寒霜降,冬雪雪冬小大寒

每月两节不变更,最多相差一两天

上半年来六廿一,下半年是八廿三
[PR]
by shawl_qiu | 2005-10-15 19:08 | DIGEST

Who Moved My Cheese?


Who Moved My Cheese?

An Amazing Way to Deal With Change In Your Work & In Your Life
DR SPENCER JOHNSON

“Cheese” – a metaphor for what we want to have in life, whether it is a job, a relationship, money, a big house, freedom, health, recognition, spiritual peace, or even an activity like jogging or golf.

Each of us has our own idea of what Cheese is, and we pursue it because we believe it makes us happy. If we get it, we often become attached to it. And if we lose it, or it’s taken away, it can be traumatic.
ONCE, long ago, there lived 4 little characters who ran through a maze looking for cheese to nourish them & make them happy.
Two were mice named “Sniff” & “Scurry” and two were little people named “Hem” & “Haw”.
Every morning, the mice & the little people dressed in their running gear & headed over to Cheese Station C where they found their own kind of cheese. It was a large store of Cheese that Hem & Haw eventually moved their homes to be closer to it & built a social life around it.
To make themselves feel more at home, Hem & Haw decorated the walls with sayings. One read: "Having Cheese Makes you Happy".
Having Cheese Makes You Happy
One morning, Sniff & Scurry arrived at Cheese Station C & discovered there was no cheese.

They weren’t surprised. Since they had noticed the supply of cheese had been getting smaller every day, they were prepared for the inevitable & knew instinctively what to do. They were quickly off in search of New Cheese.
Later that same day, Hem & Haw arrived. “What! No Cheese? Who moved my Cheese? It’s not fair!”, Hem yelled. They went home that night hungry & discouraged. But before they left, Haw wrote on the wall:
The More Important Your Cheese is To You, The More You Want To Hold Onto It.
The next day Hem & Haw left their homes, & returned to Cheese Station C. But situation hadn’t changed. Haw asked, “Where are Sniff & Scurry? Do you think they know something we don’t?” Hem scoffed, “What would they know? They’re just simple mice. They just respond to what happens. We’re little people. We’re smarter.”

Haw suggested, “Maybe we should stop analyzing the situation so much and just get going & find some New Cheese.
Haw decided to leave Cheese Station C while Hem was more comfortable staying in the cheeseless Station C. Haw announced, “It’s MAZE time!” and wrote:
If You Do Not Change,

You Can Become Extinct
Who Moved My Cheese?

Meanwhile, Sniff & Scurry went farther into the maze until they found Cheese Station N. They found what they had been looking for: a great supply of New Cheese. It was the biggest store of cheese the mice had ever seen.

Haw on the other hand become more anxious & wondered if he really wanted to go out into the Maze. He wrote a saying on the wall ahead of him & stared at it for some time:
What Would You Do
If You Weren’t Afraid?




Haw now realized that the change probably would not have taken him by surprise if he had been watching what was happening all along and if he had anticipated change. He stopped for a rest & wrote on the wall of the Maze:

Smell The Cheese Often
So You Know

When It Is Getting Old.




Haw wondered if Hem had moved on, or if he was still paralyzed by his own fears. Then, Haw remembered the times when he had felt his best in the Maze. It was when he was moving along. He wrote:

Movement In A New Direction Helps You Find
New Cheese.




As Haw started running down the dark corridor, he began to smile. Haw didn’t realize it yet, but he was discovering what nourished his soul. He was letting go & trusting what lay ahead for him, even though he did not know exactly what it was.

To his surprise, Haw started to enjoy himself more & more. He stopped to write again on the wall:
When You Move Beyond Your Fear,

You Feel Free.

Who Moved My Cheese?

To make things even better, Haw started to paint a picture in his mind again. He saw himself in great realistic detail, sitting in the middle of a pile of all his favorite cheeses-from Cheddar to Brie! He saw himself eating the many cheeses he liked, & he enjoyed what he saw.

The more clearly he saw the image of himself enjoying New Cheese, the more real & believable it became. He wrote:
Imagining Myself
Enjoying New Cheese,

Even Before I Find It,

Leads Me To It.


Haw wondered why he had always thought that a change would lead to something worse. Now he realized that change could lead to something better.

Then he raced through the Maze with greater strength & agility. Until he found bits of New Cheese. He entered the Cheese Station but it was empty. Someone had already been there.
He stopped & wrote on the wall:
The Quicker You
Let Go Of Old Cheese,

The Sooner

you Find New Cheese.


Haw made his way back to Cheese Station C to offer Hem bits of New Cheese but was turned down. Hem wanted his own Cheese back. Haw just shook his head in disappointment but this does not stop him from finding New Cheese. He smiled as he realized:

It Is Safer
To Search In The Maze

Than Remain

In The Cheeseless Situation.


Haw realized again, that what you are afraid of is never as bad as what you imagine. The fear you let build up in your mind is worse than the situation that actually exists.

He realizes it was natural for change to continually occur, whether you expect it or not. Change could surprise you only if you didn’t expect it & weren’t looking for it.
When he realized he had changed his beliefs, he paused to write on the wall:
Old Beliefs
Do Not Lead You To

New Cheese.

Who Moved My Cheese?



Haw now realized that his new beliefs were encouraging him to behave in a new way. He was behaving differently from the way he had when he had kept returning to the same cheeseless station.

It all depends on what you choose to believe. He wrote on the wall:
When You See That You Can Find And Enjoy New Cheese, You Change Course.

Haw just hoped he was heading in the right direction. He thought about the possibility that Hem would read The Handwriting On The Wall & find his way.

He wrote on the wall what he had been thinking about for some time:
Noticing Small Changes Early Helps You Adapt To The Bigger Changes That Are To Come.



He continued on through the Maze with greater strength & speed. He proceeded along a corridor that was new to him, rounded a corner, & found New Cheese at Cheese Station N where he saw the greatest supply of Cheese he had ever seen.Sniff & Scurry welcomed him.

“Hooray for Change!”
Haw wrote down a summary of what he had learned on the largest wall of Cheese Station N & smiled as he looked at what he had learned:
THE HANDWRITING ON THE WALL
?Change Happens
?Anticipate Change
?Monitor Change
?Adapt To Change Quickly
Change
?Enjoy Change !
?Be Ready To Change Quickly & Enjoy It Again.



Move With The Cheese &
Enjoy It !
[PR]
by shawl_qiu | 2005-10-15 19:06 | DIGEST

Google and the Chinese Government


Google and the Chinese Government

Bill Xia of DIT says that on September 15 a volunteer working with DynaWeb noticed that Google's Chinese news was returning different results depending on whether the search was conducted in China or in the United States.

Bill Xia, CEO of Dynamic Internet Technology (DIT), a company which runs services aimed at allowing Chinese people to access unfiltered news, says Google (Nasdaq: GOOG) is helping Chinese authorities to maintain an online "matrix" that keeps people from finding out what's happening outside the country's borders.

DIT was founded in 2001 to provide low-cost, reliable Internet services for people living under repressive regimes such as China's. DIT's DynaWeb is a constantly updated, free proxy network designed to circumvent Internet blocking.

Xia told me that on September 15 a volunteer working with DynaWeb noticed that Google's Chinese news was returning different results depending on whether the search was conducted in China or in the United States.
Blocked Web Sites

"We were able to confirm this report through proxies in China," says Xia. "Search results inside China do not contain news from blocked sites such as www.epochtimes.com.au."

He says the search started with a news.google.com search on the name of a Chinese poet living in America. In the U.S. it returned three entries, two from epochtimes.com.au and one from chinesenewsnet.com.

But, Xia says, "When we used a proxy in China to simulate the search from inside China, zero results were returned." The search was made at 5:50 p.m. Eastern time on September 16. Other keywords were tested as well.
Google Responds

A Google spokesperson told me, "In order to create the best possible news search experience for our users, we sometimes decide not to include some sites, for a variety of reasons."

A Google spokeswoman told me, "In order to create the best possible news search experience for our users, we sometimes decide not to include some sites, for a variety of reasons." For example, she said, "they may display improperly in our service, or be inaccessible to users. We have not included links to a number of sources that are not accessible to mainland China Internet users."
Google and the Matrix

That answer does not satisfy Xia. "The Chinese government controls the media and the military and through them, is able to create a 'Matrix' that hides Web sites that relate to civil rights and opinions the Chinese authorities don't want people to see," he says.

Xia added, "And of course, these are the only places people can find this kind of 'forbidden information' and by excluding [it], Google is actively helping the Chinese government to enhance its 'Matrix.' This exercise is no different to Yahoo (Nasdaq: YHOO) China's exclusion of oversea sites when words such as 'Falun Gong' are searched.

"I condemn it and urge the public to demand that Google explains how it's able to justify the practice."

Xia also said that he has demonstrated that Google is using geographical differentiation to display different results to different locations.
Chinese Search Engines

Google also has a minority share in Baidu.com, a Chinese search engine.

"Baidu is the largest independent search engine, but much smaller than the leading portals Sohu.com and Sina.com," according to Poynteronline, which continues:

"Two years ago, Baidu put itself on the media radar and angered many Chinese Internet users. China's censors had installed new filtering software to keep unwanted information out of the country. For [as] yet unclear reasons, Google was very prominent on the hit list of those new IT-goodies and people who wanted to Google ended mostly up in the Baidu.com Web site."

Internal Google documents obtained by the San Francisco Chronicle reveal that in Europe Google is the clear search leader, but Asia is "an entirely different story," the paper wrote. The company's search engine ranked third in Hong Kong and tenth in Japan.

"China is also considered to be particularly tough," according to the Chronicle. "Many Chinese companies already dominate the search market there. In June, Google invested a reported $10 million in one of them, Baidu."

The Chronicle story also points out that wherever Google has offices, "it faces a variety of laws. In some cases, that includes filtering Web sites for illegal content. Google has blocked more than 100 such Web sites in France and Germany, according to a study by the Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard University. Google insists that it is merely complying with the law and that the filtering does not affect search results elsewhere in the world."
Do It Yourself

If you're planning to emulate the DynaWeb search, don't use high-profile keywords such as "Falun Gong" or "religious freedom" because they'll trigger the national firewall in China and disconnect you from Google or from the proxy you're using, depending on where you are and how you're doing the search.

"Use dissidents' or writers' names who publish articles or are reported on oversea Web sites," suggests Xia.

He adds, "If you triggered the keyword blocking, you can try to find another proxy and change your IP by restarting your computer or logging off and logging back in."

If you're Chinese and you're looking for a way to access independent Internet news sources, try Freegate, the DIT program written to help Chinese citizens circumvent Web blocking outside of China. Download it here.

By Jon Newton
TechNewsWorld
09/22/04 6:00 AM PT
[PR]
by shawl_qiu | 2005-10-09 21:40 | DIGEST

"官本位"是封建官僚制度的一大遗产


"官本位"是封建官僚制度的一大遗产

  "万般皆下品,惟有读书高","十年寒窗无人问,一朝成名天下知",这些在小时候耳熟能详的励志口头禅,实际上是"官本位"思想的真实写照。中国是重"官"的社会,人们都想当官,又都怕官,"官本位"的思想在中国封建社会里达到炉火纯青的地步。

  什么是"官本位"?"官本位"首先是一种体制设置和制度安排。"官本位"在中国流传了几千年。在封建社会,王侯将相,官分九品,形成庞大而严密的"官本位"体系。整个社会纳入国家行政系统的体制结构,所有的人、所有的组织和部门,都分别归入行政序列,规定其等级,划分其行政权限,并最终服从统一的行政控制,所谓"普天之下,莫非王土;率土之滨,莫非王臣"。封建制度下的官僚制度和社会权力结构严格而又系统,高度集权而又等级森严,全社会就是一个以行政权力搭建起来的金字塔,塔的顶端就是皇帝。在这个宝塔形的体制结构中,等级森严,上尊下卑,界限分明,不容僭越。官越大权越大,享受待遇就越高,地位就越显赫。上下级之间不是双向互动运行关系,而是下级完全隶属于上级,一切听命于上级;对下级官员说来,一切只对能决定其个人命运的上级官员负责。在单一行政化的体制下,不是整体的规则、秩序和法理的统治,而是个人的统治;不是法定程序支配,而是"长官意志"支配;不是"法治",而是"人治"。在现代社会,当官仍然有特权,可以获得比别人多的利益,可以得到人们的尊重,还可以有信息获得的高位势。

  "官本位"是一种思想意识、一种价值取向。作为一种意识和价值取向,是指以官为本、以权为纲,以仕途为个人事业的选择导向,一切服从于官级地位,一切为了做官和升官,把做官、升官看作人生最高价值追求,同时又用做官来评判人生价值的大小。一切为了做官,做官为了一切,有了官位就能封妻荫子、光宗耀祖,可谓"一人得道,鸡犬升天",就连"祖坟也会冒青烟"。在等级森严的封建社会里,官为百业之首,唯有走上仕途,才能出人头地。处于社会下层的人们,要摆脱贫困和低贱的社会地位,除了入仕,别无他途。人们把"升官"作为出人头地的唯一途径。读书为了做官,做官意味着光宗耀祖。于是乎,"学而优则仕",人们是否入仕为官,能否官居高位,成了衡量一个人奋斗成功与否的标志。"洞房花烛夜,金榜题名时"成了人生两大幸事。就连商人也不例外。不少商人经商的目的,最终是为了从政,是为了用钱"捐官"、"买官"。"卖官鬻爵"使官位有着强劲的买方市场。"官本位"意识是封建官僚制度在观念形态上的反映,并维护和服务于官僚集权体制。"范进中举"后的种种神态,恰是这种观念生动而真实的写照。

  "官本位"也是一种社会现象。作为一种社会现象,它意味着当官就有尊严,有权就有一切。人们以官为贵,以官为尊,社会上形成了以官职大小衡量人的价值、成就、地位。由此造就一种对权力、官位、官员的崇拜和敬畏,进而导致长官意志、权力至上观念和依附意识及其现象的盛行。官职可以衡量一切:政治待遇、社会名声、经济收益、工薪多少、住房大小、专车档次。官级不仅影响活人,人死后有没有追悼会、悼词长或短、安葬谁掏钱、安葬在何处,都视官职大小而定。各种会议,甚至是学术会议或专业会议,行政领导都要头排就座,而且特别讲究领导与会级别、座次安排,以至于会议座次安排是政府会议管理的最大学问。企业有级别,企业领导要对应行政官衔;演员、教师、医生、科研人员,要用官级来套;甚至和尚、老道,也得看他相当于多大官,以至于闹出"处级方丈"、"局级主持"这样的让人笑不起来的笑话。"官本位"现象已经覆盖了全社会,孩子们也沾染官瘾。一个几十人的小小班级,除了班长、副班长,还有学习委员、劳动委员、卫生委员、体育委员、文艺委员,少先队系统还有大队长、中队长、小队长,带官衔的几乎占去班级的一大半。孩子们常常为了多一道"杠"而争得面红耳赤。实在没法安排了,可以当一个科代表。一个孩子当了值周生就高兴了一个礼拜,因为他从来没当过班干部,值周生至少可以过一周的官瘾。家长们为给孩子谋个一官半职,不惜给老师请客送礼。

( 辽宁社会科学院研究员 梁启东)
[PR]
by shawl_qiu | 2005-10-08 23:38 | DIGEST

The Declaration of Independence of The United States of America


The Declaration of Independence of The United States of America

In Congress, July 4, 1776

The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America

When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just Powers from the consent of the governed, -- That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new guards for their future security -- Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. -- The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let facts be submitted to a candid world.

He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.

He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.

He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their Public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.

He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.

He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative Powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.

He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.

He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary Powers.

He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.

He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harrass our People, and eat out their substance.

He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.

He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil Power.

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:

For Quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:

For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from Punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:

For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:

For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:

For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury:

For transporting us beyond seas to be tried for pretended offences:

For abolishing the free system of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies:

For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the forms of our Governments:

For suspending our own Legislature, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.

He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.

He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty and perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.

He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.

He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.

In every stage of these Oppressions we have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince, whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.

Nor have we been wanting in attention to our Brittish brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.

We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do.

And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.
[PR]
by shawl_qiu | 2005-10-07 16:59 | DIGEST

美国独立宣言


美国独立宣言是一份于1776年7月4日由托玛斯·杰弗逊起草,并由其它13个殖民地代表签署的最初声明美国从英国独立的文件。

独 立 宣 言
(选自羊皮纸稿本)

美利坚合众国13个州的一致宣言:

在人类历史事件的进程中,当一个民族有必要解除其与另一民族相连结的政治桎梏,并按照自然法则和上帝的意旨在世界列强中取得独立与平等的地位时,对于人类舆论的真诚与尊重,要求他们必须将不得已而独立的原因予以宣布。

我们认为以下真理是不言而喻的:人人生而平等,造物主赋予他们某些不可转让的权利,其中包括生命权、自由权和追求幸福的权利。为了保障这些权利,人们建立起来被管辖者同意的政府。任何形式的政府,一旦破坏这些目标,人民就有权利去改变它或废除它,并建立一个新的政府。新政府所根据的原则及其组织权力的方式,务必使人民认为,唯有这样才最有可能保障他们的安全与幸福。诚然,慎重会使得一个建立已久的政府不因微不足道的和暂时的原因而被改变,过去的一切经验也表明,人类更倾向于忍受尚能忍受的苦难,而不去为了拯救自己而废除他们久己习惯了的政府形式。但是,当滥用职权和巧取豪夺的行为连绵不断、层出不穷,证明政府追求的目标是企图把人民置于专制主义统治之下时,人民就有权利,也有义务推翻这样的政府,并为他们未来的安全建立新的保障。这就是我们这些殖民地的人民一向忍受的苦难,以及现在不得不起来改变原先政治制度的原因。当今大不列颠王国的历史,就是一部反复重演的伤天害理、巧取豪夺的历史。所有这些行径的直接目的,就是要在我们这些州里建立专制的暴政统治。为了证明这一点,特将事实陈诸于世界公正人士之前:

他拒绝批准那些对公共福利最有益、最必要的法律。

他禁止他的总督们批准那些紧急的、极其重要的法律,除非那些法律在经他同意之前暂停施行;而暂停施行期间,他又对那些法律完全置之不理。

他拒绝批准其它有关人民向广大地区迁居的法律,除非那些人民愿意放弃其在立法机关中的代表权;这种代表权对人民来说具有无可估量的意义,只有对暴君来说才是可怕的。他把各州立法团体召集到特别的、极不方便的、远离政府档案库的地方去开会,其唯一的目的就是使他们疲于奔命,不得不顺从他的旨意。

他屡次解散各州的议会,因为这些议会曾坚定不移地反抗他对人民权利的侵犯。

他在解散各州议会之后,又长时期地不让人民另选新议会;不可抹煞的立法权力又归一般民众行使;而其时各州仍然处于内乱外患的危险之中。

他竭力抑制各州的人口增长;为此目的,他为《外国人归化法》设置障碍,拒绝批准其它鼓励外国人移居各州的法律,并提高了重新分配土地的条件。

他拒绝批准确立司法权力的法律,从而阻碍司法行政管理工作。

他使法官的任职年限、薪金数额及支付办法完全由他个人意志来决定。

他滥设新职,派遣大批官吏来钳制我们的人民,耗尽我们人民的财力。

他不经我们立法机关的同意,在和平时期就把常备军驻扎在我们各州。

他力图使军队独立于政权,并凌驾于政权之上。

他与某些人相互勾结,要我们屈服于一种与我们的体制格格不入、没有为我们法律所承认的管辖权之下;并且批准那些炮制的假冒法案。

在我们这里驻扎大量的武装部队。

用欺骗性审讯来包庇那些杀害我们各州居民的人,使他们得以逍遥法外。

切断我们与世界各地的贸易。

未经我们的同意即向我们强行征税。

在许多案件中剥夺我们的陪审权力。

以莫须有的罪名押送我们去海外受审。

在邻近的地区废除保障自由的英国法律体制,建立专制政府,并扩大其疆界,企图使它迅即成为一个样板和一件顺手的工具,以便进而把同样的专制统治引向我们这些殖民地。取消我们的宪章,废除我们那些最宝贵的法令,并且从根本上改变我们的政府形式。关闭我们自己的立法机关,有权就一切事宜为我们制定法律。

他宣布我们已不受其保护,并对我们开战。这样,表明了他已放弃在这里的政权。

他在我们的海域大肆掠夺,骚扰我们的沿海地区,焚毁我们的城镇,并残害我们人民的生命。

他此刻正在调运大量的外籍雇佣军,意在制造死亡、毁灭和专制暴虐。他已经造成即使在人类历史上最野蛮的时代都罕见的残暴和背信弃义的气氛。他完全不配做一个文明国家的元首。

他强迫在公海上被俘的我们的同胞武装起来反对自己的国家,充当残杀自己亲人和朋友的刽子手,或者死于自己亲人朋友之手。

他在我们之间煽动内乱,并竭力挑动我们的边疆居民、那些残酷无情的未开化的印第安人;而印第安人的著名的作战原则是不分男女老幼、不论何种情况,一概格杀勿论。

在这些高压政策的每一个阶段,我们都曾以最谦卑的言词请求予以纠正;而每次的吁请所得到的答复都只是屡遭损害。一个君主,当他的每个行为都已打上暴君的烙印时,是不配做自由人民的统治者。

我们并没有置我们的英国弟兄于不顾。我们时常提醒他们,他们的立法机构企图把不合理的管辖权横加到我们头上;我们曾提醒他们注意,我们移殖来此和在这里定居的情况。我们曾经向他们天生的正义感和侠义精神呼吁,恳请他们念及同种同宗的情谊,抵制那些掠夺行为以免影响我们之间的联系和友谊。但是,他们对这种正义的、血肉之亲的呼吁置若罔闻。因此,我们不得不宣布与他们脱离,并且以对待世界上其它民族一样的态度对待他们:和我们作战,就是敌人;和我们和好,就是朋友。

因此,我们,集合在大会中的美利坚合众国的代表们,以这些殖民地的善良人民的名义,并经他们授权,向全世界最祟高的正义人士呼吁,说明我们的严正意向,同时庄严宣布:这些联合一致的殖民地从此成为、而且按其权利必须成为自由独立的国家;它们已经解除一切效忠于英王室的义务,从此完全断绝、并必须断绝与大不列颠王国之间的一切政治联系。作为自由独立的国家;它们享有全权去宣战、缔和、同盟、通商或采取其它一切独立国家有权采取的行动。为了拥护此项宣言,我们怀着神明保佑的坚定信心,以我们的生命、我们的财产和我们神圣的荣誉,互相宣誓。
[PR]
by shawl_qiu | 2005-10-07 16:45 | DIGEST

Gyokuon-hoso (玉音放送)

Gyokuon-hoso (玉音放送)

"Gyokuon-hoso" (玉音放送) was the speech delivered by Emperor Hirohito on 15 August 1945, announcing to the Japanese people, and the world, that Japan would accept the terms of the Potsdam Declaration, and surrender, ending World War II. A full article about it can be found on Wikipedia.

TO OUR GOOD AND LOYAL SUBJECTS:
After pondering deeply the general trends of the world and the actual conditions obtaining in Our Empire today, We have decided to effect a settlement of the present situation by resorting to an extraordinary measure.
We have ordered Our Government to communicate to the Governments of the United States, Great Britain, China and the Soviet Union that Our Empire accepts the provisions of their Joint Declaration.
To strive for the common prosperity and happiness of all nations as well as the security and well-being of Our subjects is the solemn obligation which has been handed down by Our Imperial Ancestors and which lies close to Our heart.
Indeed, We declared war on America and Britain out of Our sincere desire to ensure Japan's self-preservation and the stabilization of East Asia, it being far from Our thought either to infringe upon the sovereignty of other nations or to embark upon territorial aggrandizement.
But now the war has lasted for nearly four years. Despite the best that has been done by everyone - the gallant fighting of the military and naval forces, the diligence and assiduity of Our servants of the State, and the devoted service of Our one hundred million people - the war situation has developed not necessarily to Japan's advantage, while the general trends of the world have all turned against her interest.
Moreover, the enemy has begun to employ a new and most cruel bomb, the power of which to do damage is, indeed, incalculable, taking the toll of many innocent lives. Should We continue to fight, not only would it result in an ultimate collapse and obliteration of the Japanese nation, but also it would lead to the total extinction of human civilization.
Such being the case, how are We to save the millions of Our subjects, or to atone Ourselves before the hallowed spirits of Our Imperial Ancestors? This is the reason why We have ordered the acceptance of the provisions of the Joint Declaration of the Powers.
We cannot but express the deepest sense of regret to Our Allied nations of East Asia, who have consistently cooperated with the Empire towards the emancipation of East Asia.
The thought of those officers and men as well as others who have fallen in the fields of battle, those who died at their posts of duty, or those who met with untimely death and all their bereaved families, pains Our heart night and day.
The welfare of the wounded and the war-sufferers, and of those who have lost their homes and livelihood, are the objects of Our profound solicitude.
The hardships and sufferings to which Our nation is to be subjected hereafter will be certainly great. We are keenly aware of the inmost feelings of all of you. Our subjects. However, it is according to the dictates of time and fate that WE have resolved to pave the way for a grand peace for all the generations to come by enduring the unendurable and suffering what is unsufferable [sic].
Having been able to safeguard and maintain the structure of the Imperial State, We are always with you, Our good and loyal subjects, relying upon your sincerity and integrity.
Beware most strictly of any outbursts of emotion which may engender needless complications, or any fraternal contention and strike which may create confusion, lead you astray and cause you to lose the confidence of the world.
Let the entire nation continue as one family from generation to generation, ever firm in its faith in the imperishability of its sacred land, and mindful of its heavy burden of responsibility and of the long road before it.
Unite your total strength, to be devoted to construction for the future. Cultivate the ways of rectitude, foster nobility of spirit, and work with resolution - so that you may enhance the innate glory of the Imperial State and keep pace with the progress of the world.
[PR]
by shawl_qiu | 2005-10-06 15:46 | DIGEST

大東亞戰爭終結ノ詔書 - 日本語


大東亞戰爭終結ノ詔書 - 日本語

詔書

朕深ク世界ノ大勢ト帝國ノ現狀トニ鑑ミ非常ノ措置ヲ以テ時局ヲ收拾セムト欲シ茲ニ忠良ナル爾(なんぢ)臣民ニ告ク

朕ハ帝國政府ヲシテ米英支蘇四國ニ對シ其ノ共同宣言ヲ受諾スル旨通告セシメタリ

抑ゝ帝國臣民ノ康寧ヲ圖リ萬邦共榮ノ樂ヲ偕ニスルハ皇祖皇宗ノ遺範ニシテ朕ノ拳々措カサル所曩ニ米英二國ニ宣戰セル所以モ亦實ニ帝國ノ自存ト東亞ノ安定トヲ庶幾スルニ出テ他國ノ主權ヲ排シ領土ヲ侵スカ如キハ固ヨリ朕カ志ニアラス 然ルニ交戰已ニ四歳ヲ閲シ朕カ陸海將兵ノ勇戰朕カ百僚有司ノ勵精朕カ一億衆庶ノ奉公各ゝ最善ヲ盡セルニ拘ラス戰局必スシモ好轉セス世界ノ大勢亦我ニ利アラス 加之敵ハ新ニ殘虐ナル爆彈ヲ使用シテ頻ニ無辜ヲ殺傷シ慘害ノ及フ所眞ニ測ルヘカラサルニ至ル 而モ尚交戰ヲ繼續セムカ終ニ我カ民族ノ滅亡ヲ招來スルノミナラス延テ人類ノ文明ヲモ破却スヘシ 斯ノ如クムハ朕何ヲ以テカ億兆ノ赤子ヲ保シ皇祖皇宗ノ神靈ニ謝セムヤ是レ朕カ帝國政府ヲシテ共同宣言ニ應セシムルニ至レル所以ナリ

朕ハ帝國ト共ニ終始東亞ノ解放ニ協力セル諸盟邦ニ對シ遺憾ノ意ヲ表セサルヲ得ス 帝國臣民ニシテ戰陣ニ死シ職域ニ殉シ非命ニ斃レタル者及其ノ遺族ニ想ヲ致セハ五內爲ニ裂ク 且戰傷ヲ負ヒ災禍ヲ蒙リ家業ヲ失ヒタル者ノ厚生ニ至リテハ朕ノ深ク軫念スル所ナリ 惟フニ今後帝國ノ受クヘキ苦難ハ固ヨリ尋常ニアラス 爾臣民ノ衷情モ朕善ク之ヲ知ル 然レトモ朕ハ時運ノ趨ク所堪ヘ難キヲ堪ヘ忍ヒ難キヲ忍ヒ以テ萬世ノ爲ニ太平ヲ開カムト欲ス

朕ハ茲ニ國體ヲ護持シ得テ忠良ナル爾臣民ノ赤誠ニ信倚シ常ニ爾臣民ト共ニ在リ 若シ夫レ情ノ激スル所濫ニ事端ヲ滋クシ或ハ同胞排擠互ニ時局ヲ亂リ爲ニ大道ヲ誤リ信義ヲ世界ニ失フカ如キハ朕最モ之ヲ戒ム 宜シク擧國一家子孫相傳ヘ確ク神州ノ不滅ヲ信シ任重クシテ道遠キヲ念ヒ總力ヲ將來ノ建設ニ傾ケ道義ヲ篤クシ志操ヲ鞏(かた)クシ誓テ國體ノ精華ヲ發揚シ世界ノ進運ニ後レサラムコトヲ期スヘシ爾臣民其レ克ク朕カ意ヲ體セヨ
御名御璽
昭和二十年八月十四日
[PR]
by shawl_qiu | 2005-10-06 15:39 | DIGEST


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